I will interpret from Chinese to English.
“L3/L4..5mm perineural cyst of the exiting right L3 nerve root” is a Tarlov cyst or cystic root sleeve dilatation. This is an enlargement of the dural sleeve that surrounds the nerve root. This “problem” is similar to a man wearing a suit with the underneath shirt sleeve too long on one side. It may look funny but does not mean anything.
“Mild left facet arthropathy with extra spinal synovial cyst adjacent to the left facet joint measuring 4 mm. L5/S1” means the facet on the left at L5-S1 is somewhat degenerative and has produced a synovial cyst (or ganglion cyst) which is extra spinal. The term “extra spinal” means this cyst is in the muscle behind the spine and the cyst will not cause any mischief. The degenerative facet however could be associated with a degenerative spondylolisthesis (see website for explanation).
“L5/S1.. there is a 2mm central disc protrusion with annular tear minimally effacing anterior thecal sac” means this is a simple annular tear with a small disc bulge. This bulge is not compressing any neurological structures. This tear and bulge can be asymptomatic or somewhat painful depending upon the patient and their neurological makeup.
Good luck with your specialist.
Donald Corenman, MD, DC is a highly-regarded spine surgeon, considered an expert in the area of neck and back pain. Trained as both a Medical Doctor and Doctor of Chiropractic, Dr. Corenman earned academic appointments as Clinical Assistant Professor and Assistant Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, and his research on spine surgery and rehabilitation has resulted in the publication of multiple peer-reviewed articles and two books.