Dr. Corenman, I am two weeks out of L4-L5 microdiscectomy, and I have a question regarding “disc wall” healing. My pre-op MRI indicated a “left paracentral broad-based disc protrusion”. From my understanding, a disc protrusion means the the outer layers of the annulus fibrosus is under pressure, but compared to an “extrusion” the annulus fibrosus is not torn yet. Does this mean during the procedure, the surgeon needed to create a hole in the annulus fibrosus in order to take out the bulging disc part? Is it typical for a surgeon to “seal” the opening? What healing in the future could prevent additional disc material from exiting out of the hole from force or trauma? Thank you!