Sorry- I understand your herniation is at L4-5. This would cause compression of the L4 or L5 nerves.Again, this herniation does not fill up your canal which is the normal cause of neurogenic bladder problems.
Is most of your pain on the left side? If so, the pain in the hip, thigh and calf can be caused by this herniation. An injection would also be diagnostic and give you an answer as to the origin of some of your pain. The injection anesthetizes the nerve for 2-3 hours. If you gain relief during that time and the injection is performed properly, you will have good reason to believe that your pain is from this herniation.
The bladder problem could be from pain but don’t depend upon that possibility. More likely, there is something else that is causing your bladder dysfunction. The foramen and lateral recess are explained on the website under conditions.